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21-23 MARCH 2017

Final OpenNESS Annual Meeting in Smolenice, Slovakia

OpenNESS Glossary beginning with P

P

Participatory Approach search for term

Family of approaches and methods to enable (rural) people to share, enhance, and analyse their knowledge of life and conditions, to plan and to act, to monitor and evaluate.

Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES) search for term

Conditional payments offered to providers (e.g., farmers or landowners) in exchange for employing management practices that enhance ES provision.

Policy Coherence search for term

An attribute of policy that systematically reduces conflicts and promotes synergies between and within different policy areas to achieve the outcomes associated with jointly agreed policy objectives.

Policy Consensus search for term

Agreement on an overall plan that embraces goals and procedures.

Policy Maker search for term

A person with the authority to influence or determine policies and practices at an international, national, regional or local level.

Population (Biological) search for term

A group of organisms, all of the same species, which occupies a particular area (geographic population), is genetically distinct (genetic population) or fluctuates synchronously (demographic population).

Precautionary Principle search for term

The management concept stating that in cases 'where there are threats of serious or irreversible damage, lack of full scientific certainty shall not be used as a reason for postponing cost-effective measures to prevent environmental degradation'.

Prediction search for term

(in the context of scenarios) *A description or estimate of the state of a variable or system in the future with a high degree of certainty (in contrast to projection).

Pressure search for term

*The endogenous variables that quantify the effect of drivers within an ecosystem. They are equivalent to the `direct drivers’ and `endogenous drivers’ of the MA (2005)

Production (biological) search for term

Rate of biomass produced by an ecosystem, generally expressed as biomass produced per unit of time per unit of surface or volume. Net primary productivity is defined as the energy fixed by plants minus their respiration.

Production (economic) search for term

Output of a system

Program Theory search for term

Program theory is a systematic configuration of stakeholders’ prescriptive assumptions (what actions are required to solve a problem) and descriptive assumptions (why the problem will respond to the action) underlying a program – whether explicit or implicit assumptions are made by stakeholders. As the success of a program in reaching its goals depends on the validity of its program theory, an evaluation based on the conceptual framework of program theory provides information not only on whether a program is effective or ineffective but the reasons for either.

Projection search for term

*A potential future evolution of a quantity or set of quantities, often computed with the aid of a model. Projections are distinguished from 'predictions' in order to emphasise that projections involve assumptions concerning, for example, future socioeconomic and technological developments that may or may not be realised; they are therefore subject to substantial uncertainty.

Provisioning Services search for term

Those material and energetic outputs from ecosystems that contribute to human well-being

Public Good search for term

A good where access to the good cannot be restricted.

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