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21-23 MARCH 2017

Final OpenNESS Annual Meeting in Smolenice, Slovakia

OpenNESS Glossary beginning with E

E

Ecological Asset search for term

See 'Asset'

Ecological Character search for term

See 'Ecosystem Properties'

Ecological Damage search for term

See 'Degradation'

Ecological Degradation search for term

See 'Degradation'

Ecological Process search for term

An interaction among organisms, and/or their abiotic environment.

Ecological Status search for term

A classification of ecosystem state among several, well-defined value categories.

Ecological Threshold search for term

A point at which an ecological system experiences a qualitative change, mostly in an abrupt and discontinuous way. In the context of OpenNESS we use ecological threshold and tipping points as synonyms. See also ‘regime shift’ and the distinction with ‘limit’.

Economic Valuation search for term

See 'Monetary Valuation' and 'Non-monetary Valuation'

Ecosystem search for term

Dynamic complex of plant, animal, and microorganisms communities and their non-living environment interacting as a functional unit. Humans may be an integral part of an ecosystem, although 'socio-ecological system' is sometimes used to denote situations in which people play a significant role, or where the character of the ecosystem is heavily influenced by human action.

Ecosystem Accounting search for term

The process of organising information about natural capital stocks and ecosystem service flows, so that the contributions that ecosystems make to human well-being can be understood by decision makers and any changes tracked over time. Accounts can be organised in either physical or monetary terms.

Ecosystem Approach search for term

[*] A strategy for the integrated management of land, water, and living resources that promotes conservation and sustainable use. An ecosystem approach is based on the application of appropriate scientific methods focused on levels of biological organisation, which encompass the essential structure, processes, functions, and interactions among organisms and their environment. It recognises that humans, with their cultural diversity, are an integral component of many ecosystems.

Ecosystem Assessment search for term

A social process through which the findings of science concerning the causes of ecosystem change, their consequences for human well-being, and management and policy options are brought to bear on the needs of decision-makers.

Ecosystem Attribute search for term

A biological, physical, or chemical characteristic or feature of an ecosystem.

Ecosystem Change search for term

Any variation in the state, process rates, outputs, or structure of an ecosystem.

Ecosystem Function search for term

[*] The subset of the interactions between biophysical structures, and ecosystem processes that underpin the capacity of an ecosystem to provide ecosystem services.

Ecosystem Functioning search for term

The operating of an ecosystem. Very often, there is a normative component involved, insofar as ecosystem functioning not only refers to (any) functioning/performance of the system but to 'proper functioning' and thus implies a normative choice on what is considered as a properly functioning ecosystem (operating within certain limits).

Ecosystem Health search for term

[*] A state of nature (whether managed or pristine) that is characterized by systems integrity: that is, a healthy nature is a largely self-organized system.

Ecosystem Integrity search for term

Integrity is often defined as an environmental condition that exhibits little or no human influence, maintaining the structure, function, and species composition present, prior to, and independent of human intervention [i.e. integrity is closely associated with ideas of naturalness, particularly the notion of pristine wilderness (Angermeier and Karr 1994, Callicott and others 1999)].

Ecosystem Management search for term

A direct and conscious intervention (or agreement to refrain from interventions) in an ecosystem by people that is intended to change its structure or functioning for some benefit.

Ecosystem Process search for term

A dynamic ecosystem characteristic measured as a rate that is essential for the ecosystem to operate and develop, such as decomposition, production, nutrient cycling, and fluxes of nutrients and energy. (See also 'Ecosystem Structure' and 'Biophysical Structure').

Ecosystem Properties search for term

Attributes which characterize an ecosystem, such as its size, biodiversity, stability, degree of organization, as well as its functions and processes (i.e. the internal exchanges of materials, energy and information among different pools).

Ecosystem Service Antagoniser search for term

An organism, species, population, functional group, or community which by virtue of their traits can disrupt the provision of ecosystem services.

Ecosystem Service Bundle search for term

A set of associated ecosystem services that are supplied by or demanded from a given ecosystem or are associated with a particular place and appear together repeatedly in time and space.

Ecosystem Service Flow search for term

The rate at which ecosystem services are supplied to some beneficiary.

Ecosystem Service Provider search for term

The ecosystems, component populations, communities, functional groups, etc. as well as abiotic components such as habitat type, that are the main contributors to ES output. See also 'Service-Providing Unit'

Ecosystem Service Typology search for term

A classification of ecosystem services that defines the various types and subtypes of service (e.g. MA, TEEB, CICES)

Ecosystem Services search for term

[*] The direct and indirect contributions of ecosystems to human well-being.

Ecosystem State search for term

[*] The physical, chemical and biological character of an ecosystem at a particular point of time.

Ecosystem Status search for term

[*] A description of the structure or functioning of an ecosystem according to some predefined criteria.

Ecosystem Structure search for term

A static characteristic of an ecosystem that is measured as a stock or volume of material or energy, or the composition and distribution of biophysical elements. Examples include standing crop, leaf area, % ground cover, species composition (cf. ecosystem process).

Enabling Condition search for term

Critical preconditions for success of responses, including political, institutional, social, economic, and ecological factors

Endangered Species search for term

See 'Threatened Species'

Environmental Accounting search for term

[*] See 'Natural Capital Accounting'

Environmental Liability search for term

Obligation based on the principle that a polluting party should pay for any and all damage caused to the environment by its activities (also known as polluter pays principle).

Environmental Policy Integration search for term

The incorporation of environmental objectives into all stages of policy making in non-environmental policy sectors, with a specific recognition of this goal as a guiding principle for the planning and execution of policy, accompanied by an attempt to aggregate presumed environmental consequences into an overall evaluation of policy, and a commitment to minimize contradictions between environmental and sectoral policies by giving principled priority to the former over the latter.

Environmental Settings search for term

Locations or places where humans interact with each other and nature that give rise to the cultural goods and benefits that people obtain from ecosystems.

Equity search for term

Fairness of rights, distribution, and access. Depending on context, this can refer to resources, services or power.

Evolutionary Process search for term

A series of events that produce changes in gene frequencies within a population. Such changes can result in the appearance of new species (speciation) or new infraspecific taxa.

Existence Value search for term

The value that individuals place on knowing that a resource exists, even if they never use that resource (also sometimes known as conservation value or passive use value).

Explorative Scenario search for term

The projection of the state and condition of an ecosystem into the future, based on the anticipated impacts of the direct and indirect drivers of change, designed to help people understand the consequences of different sets of assumptions. See also 'Scenario'

Externality search for term

A consequence of an action that affects someone other than the agent undertaking that action and for which the agent is neither compensated nor penalized through the markets. Externalities can be positive or negative.

Extrapolation search for term

A projection, extension, or expansion of information from what is known into an area not known or experienced, providing conjectural knowledge of the unknown area.

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